Carrageenan, a natural food additive derived from red seaweed, has long been a subject of debate in the food industry and among health-conscious consumers. While it has been used for centuries as a gelling, thickening, and stabilizing agent in various food products, questions about its safety have arisen, particularly regarding its potential carcinogenic risk.
Before delving into the controversies, let's understand what carrageenan is and its different forms. Carrageenan is extracted from certain red seaweeds, primarily Irish moss (Chondrus crispus) and Gigartina stellata. It comes in two main types: undegraded and degraded carrageenan.
1. Undegraded Carrageenan: This form is widely used in the food industry as a stabilizer and thickener in products like dairy items (e.g., ice cream, yogurt), plant-based milk alternatives, processed meats, and more. It enhances texture, prevents ingredient separation, and improves the overall mouthfeel of foods.
2. Degraded Carrageenan (Poligeenan): Not used in food applications, degraded carrageenan is primarily employed in non-food industries such as biomedical research and certain industrial processes.
The controversy surrounding carrageenan stems from studies that have suggested potential links to gastrointestinal issues and cancer. Some studies conducted on animals, particularly rodents, have indicated that high doses of degraded carrageenan (poligeenan) may cause gastrointestinal inflammation and lesions, leading to concerns about its safety in food.
However, it's crucial to understand that undegraded carrageenan, which is the type used in food applications, does not undergo the same degradation process as poligeenan. The manufacturing processes for the two forms are different, resulting in distinct chemical structures and properties.
Regulatory Agencies' Stance
Various regulatory agencies worldwide have evaluated carrageenan's safety based on available scientific evidence. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have concluded that undegraded carrageenan is safe for human consumption at levels typically used in foods.
In 2018, JECFA conducted a comprehensive review of carrageenan and reaffirmed its safety. They established an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of up to 75 mg/kg body weight for undegraded carrageenan, confirming its safety profile for most consumers.
The NutriNews Perspective
While concerns have been raised about carrageenan's potential carcinogenic risk, it's essential to recognize that the majority of scientific evidence supports the safety of undegraded carrageenan when used at typical levels in food products.
It's worth noting that the studies indicating carcinogenicity were primarily conducted on animals given excessively high doses of poligeenan, a form not used in food. Additionally, human studies investigating carrageenan's carcinogenic effects have not shown conclusive evidence linking it to cancer in humans.
Nonetheless, as with any food additive, moderation is key. Carrageenan is generally recognized as safe when used within established guidelines and dietary levels. Individuals with specific dietary sensitivities or gastrointestinal concerns may choose to avoid carrageenan-containing products or consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice.
Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is for educational purposes only and should not be considered as medical or dietary advice. If you have specific dietary concerns or health-related questions, it's recommended to consult with a registered dietitian or healthcare professional.